The aim of this report, which was initiated within the partnership initiative on South-South and Triangular Cooperation for Agricultural Development and Enhanced Food Security (SSTC-ADFS), is to show that agricultural challenges and problems in the Global South can be addressed and overcome by successful solutions present in the Global South through public-private partnerships (PPPs). The report highlights the solutions that have been developed in these countries through PPPs. The SSTC-ADFS is an initiative that includes a total of nine countries from the Arab States region (Algeria, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) and from the Europe (Hungary) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkey and Uzbekistan). This initiative can serve as a tool for sharing solutions and experiences generated in member countries and replicating them in other member countries tailoring to local needs.
South-South and Triangular Cooperation (SSTC) has become an important mechanism for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). With the successes and growth of Global South economies such as Brazil, India, China and South Africa, and the increased cooperation delivered through SSTC mechanisms, the nations of the Global North took notice of the potential of SSTC. Building on these successes, the G-8 nations agreed in 2005 that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and subsequently the SDGs would not be solved without increased SSTC.
Part 1 focuses on the enabling policies and practices already in place. First, attention is given to the main projects and initiatives substantially and financially supported and facilitated by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) and other international partners. Today, IFAD and IsDB consider SSTC a central part of their work. While the IsDB’s support is provided for Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Member States, IFAD has a more global footprint. In the Near East and North Africa (NENA) region, there are currently active IFAD-funded or co-funded investment projects in ten countries amounting to $1.16 billion. As a result of these projects, roughly 825,000 rural households have directly benefitted from IFAD’s operations. Similar results are shown in this report concerning IFAD’s work in Eastern Europe and the CIS. IFAD’s work typically focuses directly on benefitting smallholder farms in some of the most rural, difficult-to-reach regions. Much of IFAD’s work also benefits countries in fragile situations, such as in a recent post-conflict phase. The IsDB has been a valuable resource for research and development, boosting economic growth and fighting poverty in the Member States. The examples in this document focus more on infrastructure support, such as bringing electricity to rural areas, in the context of PPPs; this type of support benefits many sectors, including agriculture.
Examples of infrastructure improvements supported by the IsDB in the countries covered by SSTC-ADFS are discussed. Each example in Morocco, Sudan and Turkey has an effect on rural development and agriculture using a different approach to improvements. Other initiatives and solutions of SSTC are then discussed, including: The Global South-South Development (GSSD) Expos, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) strategy on SSTC and Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition. These efforts include conducting outreach and sharing knowledge on SSTC solutions (GSSD), promoting agriculture development in the Global South through an SSTC strategy (FAO), and strengthening the role of data and access in solutions (Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition, GODAN).
Part 2 focuses on key centres of excellence. The SSTC-ADFS initially identified five knowledge exchange corridors: (i) from the Arab States to Central Asia and Eastern Europe on livestock management; (ii) from Eastern Europe to Arab States and Central Asia on biotechnology; (iii) from Turkey to Arab States and Central Asia on training and support of farmer-based organizations;(iv) between all countries on sustainable water resources management; and (v) other corridors as relevant themes emerge. Since implementation, several other knowledge exchange corridors, including PPPs, have occurred based on demand from participating countries. Key centres of excellence are discussed that facilitate these knowledge-sharing corridors.
Finally, Part 3 discusses the most effective solutions of PPPs in agriculture that could be used by other countries through SSTC. The solutions to agricultural challenges and problems in the Global South that used PPP as a model of development were considered from partner countries in the SSTC-ADFS initiative. The selected solutions must also have had either a transformative impact, particularly on smallholder farmers, either directly or indirectly, or a tremendous potential to be a pillar solution that affects many other solutions and innovations. Selecting solutions were based on the following criteria:
- targets a substantive number of people at the level of communities;
- is cost-effective given the budget limitations and ability to be implemented by smallholder farmers or small enterprises;
- greatly increases crop productivity;
- drastically improves livelihoods, particularly of rural women and youth.